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I have been blogging for over seven years and spread my content over a half dozen different platforms. The problem is that many people have no idea where they can find all of my content. What is worse, if someone stumbles upon some of my old content they are unlikely to find my more recent thoughts. To remedy this problem, I have aggregated my blog posts going back to 2014 into my new blog website: moreequalanimals.com.Content from bytemaster.github.io, dan@steemit, dantheman@steemit, bytemaster@medium.com, and dan@voice.com is now available on: More Equal Animals.

I hope to build out a database of content that is easy to navigate and cross reference and then hopefully bring the best features back to voice so everyone can have a powerful blogging platform that they own. …


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I’m writing this blog to respond to a paper on “Revisiting Transactional Statistics of High-scalability Blockchain”. In this paper they make the erroneous claim that “the current throughput is only 34 TPS for EOSIO”.

This particular paper gathers a lot of data; however, one must question the integrity of a paper that looks to redefine throughput as “only transactions they think have value”. The approach used in the paper attempts to redefine throughput from “what a system can do” to “what a system is doing that I value”. …


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All magic comes with a price dearie — Once Upon a Time

It doesn’t take much to bring out tribalism when it comes to comparing blockchain technology. I have been working on blockchain tech since 2009 and one of the things that I find helpful is to consider all of the design tradeoffs that people can make. It isn’t as simple as “fastest”, “most scalable”, “most decentralized”, or “best governance”. This post will look into some of the less frequently thought about issues when it comes to picking which blockchain technology is best for your application.

Trusted vs Untrusted Governance

There are many different kinds of governance systems in play on various blockchains, and not all governance systems are suitable for building trust. For example, Delegated Proof of Work (e.g. Bitcoin & Ethereum) is a voting system whereby mining pools get to determine what subset of valid transactions are included in blocks. The nodes producing the blocks are not presumed to have any “higher level of trust” than anyone else and therefore they can “do no harm” by virtue of producing a block. …


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Traditional web application infrastructure was designed with security as an afterthought and for over 25 years companies have been attempting to patch a fundamentally insecure architecture. This architecture was designed with the assumption that a server could be trusted and secured, but years of experience has taught us that no server is safe from external attacks, let alone internal compromises. Stated another way, a server is fundamentally centralized.

We used to think that the “problem” was the connection between the user and the server and so we introduced SSL and HTTPS. But then we discovered that hackers would compromise the database and steal passwords. So we set about storing hashes of passwords, but then we discovered hackers would brute force the password after stealing the hashes. …


In 2019 I created new space in my life to read and it has been one of my most rewarding and transformational years. Books express ideas with a level of depth and richness that is not possible to achieve in a blog post, podcast, or tweet. Choosing which book to read can be challenging given the millions of books available, so I am eternally grateful to my twitter followers and friends who recommended some of the books I read this year.

This post presents the books I read and the value they added to my life. It is my hope and desire that everyone has the benefits of the knowledge and perspective I have gained as a result of this reading. Before I dive into the books, I would encourage those of you who don’t have a habit of reading to develop the habit because through the habit of reading you develop your mind and enhance your opportunity to create the life you always wanted. If you are having trouble developing such a habit, then I suggest you start with the book Atomic Habits by James Clear. …


The EOS public network, the first implementation of EOSIO, is the most used public blockchain by a wide margin and has recently been processing a sustained 800 transfers per second utilizing a fraction of its technical capacity. The demand for transfers has been so high that the resource exchange, REX, has run out of EOS tokens to lease. This post explores the reasons why REX ran out of EOS to lend and proposes a solution that ensures that CPU resources are always available at a reasonable market price.

EOS tokens provide the utility of CPU bandwidth when they are staked. The capital cost of CPU utility has been priced highly by the market, which means that most people need to rent EOS to get the CPU they need at an affordable price with minimal exposure to capital loss as a result of the volatility in the price of EOS. …


Smart contracts make the economy more efficient by making it easy to bundle and forward rights and obligations in a trustless manner. This has profound implications for those who attempt to build limitations on transferability of rights into contracts whether in the form of fees, time locks, vote buying, indivisibility, or some other restriction. Anyone designing smart contracts that attempt to rely upon artificial limits to enforce a certain game theory outcome should read this article first.

Imagine for a moment that you wish to create a token smart contract that charges everyone 2% any time they transfer the token. This is a practically unenforceable restriction. Anyone can create a new contract that accepts deposits of your token (paying a 2% fee) and then reissuing a new transferable token that charges a lower fee or no fee at all. Others can then withdraw tokens from this new contract after performing an unlimited number of transfers and paying a final 2% fee. Most people will accept and trade the feeless token because the contract can be made immutable and there is no trust involved. This is one example of how smart contracts make markets more efficient and bypass artificial restrictions like high fees. …


The purpose of blockchain governance is to make decisions in the best interest of as many people as possible while minimizing the opportunity for a small group of people to act in ways that benefit themselves at the expense of the community. The key is to align interests and select the parties with the most to lose if the network fails to operate to its potential. True proof of stake aligns long term interests and puts control in the hands of those with a long term commitment.

From the perspective of what can be proven objectively, we can conservatively assume all accounts which vote for a producer are owned by the producer. We can also view votes and “vote buying” as nothing short of “renting stake” for the purpose of qualifying for the top N. Since there is little difference between renting and selling with a trustless repurchase agreement, there is nothing immoral with this activity and attempts to prevent it are in fact a potential violation of ownership rights. …


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History is littered with failed attempts at governance, the primary aim of which is to create a level playing field in which mankind can prosper. The primary threat of all governance systems is tyranny of the majority by a minority or any system that creates an unleveled playing field. A level playing field is like a board carefully balanced on a point, once it starts to lean it gains momentum with a positive feedback loop which accelerates the rate at which the board is tilted until it is completely falls over.

The key to keeping a playing field level is to have multiple points of support and ensuring no one side is stronger than another. It requires the creation of negative feedback loops which restore balance over time. …


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Bitcoin was created with the intent of decentralizing control over block production so that there is no single point of failure or control. The idea is to randomly select people from the population to produce blocks and reward them for their contribution. To prevent gaming the selection process by creating “fake machines”, Satoshi introduced proof of work. Each computer had to perform a computational lottery that cannot be faked.

Under the assumption that computational power is evenly distributed among the population, the result is a truly decentralized system where no one is in control and it requires 51% of the population to collude to censor data. …

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Daniel Larimer

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